Grokking the Advanced System Design Interview
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Deep Dive

Let's explore some of HDFS's design components.

Cluster topology

A typical data center contains many racks of servers connected using switches. A common configuration for Hadoop clusters is to have about 30 to 40 servers per rack. Each rack has a dedicated gigabit switch that connects all of its servers and an uplink to a core switch or router, whose bandwidth is shared by many racks in the data center, as shown in the following figure.

When HDFS is deployed on a cluster, each of its servers is configured and mapped to a particular rack




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