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Introduction to Cyclic Sort Pattern

This pattern describes an interesting approach to deal with problems involving arrays containing numbers in a given range. For example, take the following problem:

You are given an unsorted array containing n numbers taken from the range 1 to n. The array can have duplicates, which means that some numbers will be missing. Find all the missing numbers.

To efficiently solve this problem, we can use the fact that the input array contains numbers in the range of `1`

to `n`

.

For example, to efficiently sort the array, we can try placing each number at its correct place, i.e., placing 1 at

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